Diabetic Retinopathy: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

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Diabetic retinopathy, an ocular ailment impacting the retina, is prevalent among those with diabetes. Left untreated, it poses the risk of vision impairment or even blindness. However, vigilant care can avert vision loss and arrest its progression. If you observe any new visual alterations, promptly contact your healthcare provider.

Regular eye examinations are pivotal for early detection. Lifestyle modifications, such as blood sugar management and a balanced diet, contribute significantly to retinopathy prevention. Additionally, advancements in medical treatments offer hope for managing this condition effectively. A proactive approach to eye health is indispensable for individuals navigating diabetes.

What Exactly Is Diabetic Retinopathy?

What Exactly Is Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes-related retinopathy is a potentially blinding disorder that is caused by diabetes, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. The weakening and damage of blood vessels within the retina characterize it. The disease evolves through two major stages:

Nonproliferative Diabetes-Related Retinopathy (NPDR): In the early phase, blood vessels in the retina leak fluid, blood, or lipids. Over time, these vessels close, leading to ischemia, or poor blood flow, which can result in compromised retinal function.

Proliferative Diabetes-Related Retinopathy (PDR): As the disease advances, the body responds to the lack of blood supply by generating abnormal blood vessels. These vessels are fragile and prone to leaking blood into the vitreous, the gel-like substance within the eye. This leakage can cause tractional changes to the retinal surface, leading to detachment and severe vision loss.

What is Retina?

What is Retina

The retina serves as a vital link connecting incoming light with the visual images our brain processes. This intricate network of specialized cells in the retina responds to light, transmitting crucial signals to the brain, allowing us to see the world. Any alterations in this process can significantly impact vision. If you detect any changes in your sight, it is imperative to promptly communicate with your healthcare provider. Early intervention can be instrumental in addressing potential issues and preserving visual health. Regular eye check-ups are essential for monitoring the health of your retina and overall eye function.  

Diabetic Retinopathy Symptom


  • Blurred vision: Blurred vision is one of the early symptoms of diabetes-related retinopathy. The weakening of blood vessels in the retina can cause fluid leaking and swelling of the retina. This swelling can cause visual distortion, making objects look fuzzy or foggy. Individuals may struggle to focus on minute details, read small text, or properly distinguish faces.
  • Floaters and Spots: As the blood vessels in the retina become damaged, they may leak blood into the vitreous, the gel-like substance that fills the eye. This can manifest as floaters—tiny specks or dark spots that seem to float across your field of vision. These floaters may be accompanied by flashes of light, indicating potential tractional changes occurring on the retinal surface.
  • Fluctuating Vision: Diabetes-related retinopathy can lead to fluctuations in vision. Individuals may experience periods of improved vision followed by sudden episodes of worsening eyesight. These fluctuations are often indicative of the dynamic changes happening within the retina, as abnormal blood vessels grow and leak.
  • Impaired Color Vision: The compromised blood vessels in the retina can affect color perception. Individuals with diabetes-related retinopathy may notice a diminishing ability to distinguish between colors or experience a muted, washed-out appearance in their vision. This symptom can impact daily activities, such as recognizing traffic signals or identifying objects based on color.
  • Dark or Empty Areas in Vision: Advanced stages of diabetes-related retinopathy, especially proliferative retinopathy, can lead to the development of dark or empty areas in the visual field. This occurs when abnormal blood vessels cause tractional changes, detaching the retina from its normal position. The resulting gaps or dark spots can significantly impair central and peripheral vision.
  • Vision Loss: If left untreated, diabetes-related retinopathy can progress to severe vision loss. The cumulative impact of persistent leakage, abnormal blood vessel growth, and retinal detachment can result in irreversible damage to the visual system. Timely intervention through medical treatments, such as laser therapy or surgery, is crucial to prevent or minimize vision loss.
  • Eye Pain or Pressure: Some individuals with diabetes-related retinopathy may experience eye pain or a sense of pressure within the eye. This can be a result of increased fluid or blood accumulation in the vitreous, leading to discomfort. It’s essential to differentiate this symptom from other eye conditions and seek prompt medical attention.

Diabetic Retinopathy Causes


  • Uncontrolled Blood Sugar Levels: Diabetes-related elevated and uncontrolled blood glucose levels are a key cause of retinopathy. Prolonged sugar exposure destroys the blood vessels in the retina, jeopardizing their structural integrity and function.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension): High blood pressure puts additional strain on the retinal blood vessels, increasing the risk of leakage and bleeding. Diabetes and hypertension produce a hostile environment for these arteries, hastening the evolution of retinopathy. Genetic
  • Predisposition: Genetics can influence a person’s vulnerability to diabetes-related retinopathy. Some people may have a genetic predisposition that makes them more likely to suffer retinal issues when they have diabetes.

Diabetic Retinopathy Treatments

Diabetic Retinopathy Treatments

Treating diabetic retinopathy involves taking steps to protect your eyes and manage the condition. Here are some simple explanations of the treatments:

  • Control Blood Sugar: Maintaining appropriate blood sugar levels is critical. This helps to avoid future damage to your eyes’ blood vessels. Take your meds as directed and eat a healthy diet.
  • Manage Blood Pressure: Controlling your blood pressure is important because high blood pressure can worsen diabetic retinopathy. Take any prescribed blood pressure medications and adopt a healthy lifestyle.
  • Eye Injections: Sometimes, doctors may suggest injections into your eyes. These injections can help reduce swelling and stop the growth of abnormal blood vessels.
  • Laser Treatment: Laser treatment is another option. It involves using a special beam of light to seal or shrink the abnormal blood vessels. This helps prevent them from causing more harm.
  • Vitrectomy: In severe cases, a surgery called vitrectomy might be needed. This involves removing blood from the middle of the eye to improve vision.

Diabetic Retinopathy Prevention

Diabetic Retinopathy Prevention

If you have diabetes, you can reduce your chance of developing diabetes-related retinopathy by doing the following: 

  • Smoking should be avoided. 
  • Keeping your blood sugar under control. 
  • Regular exercise. 
  • Having yearly eye examinations. 
  • Maintaining a healthy blood pressure level. 
  • Taking meds precisely as directed.


Diabetic retinopathy, a dangerous eye disorder connected to diabetes, threatens eyesight. However, implementing preventative measures can help to avoid vision loss and halt its course. Regular eye exams are critical for early diagnosis, allowing problems to be addressed before they develop.

Lifestyle adjustments, like as blood sugar management and a well-balanced diet, are critical in avoiding retinopathy. Recent medical advancements provide hope for effective management. The significance of a diligent approach to eye health, including quick communication with healthcare practitioners and attention to preventative treatments, is a critical conclusion.

Individuals may take care of their eye health and retain their vision despite the obstacles given by diabetes-related retinopathy by recognizing the symptoms, causes, and available therapies.

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