Modifiable Risk Factors and Prevention for Diabetes

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Modifiable risk factors for diabetes complications

Modifiable risk factors for diabetes complications
Modifiable risk factors for diabetes complications

The modifiable risk factors for diabetes complications are those factors that have a big role in your lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes does not show prior symptoms, and you may not know that you have the condition. Also, as per the CDC, almost 30.3 million people had diabetes, while 84.1 million had prediabetes in 2015. Of these patients, 90-95% of adults had type 2 diabetes. There are some complications associated with diabetes that are modifiable. The modifiable risk factor for diabetes complications includes obesity, poor diet, high blood pressure, smoking and physical exercise. 

Risk factors for diabetes:-

Preventive programs:

Preventive programs
Preventive programs

In 2016 more than one million diabetic people were volunteered in a diabetes self-management education and support program to lower the risk of complications and improve quality of the life. The recently launched Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program could help the 22 million people aged 65 and up who have prediabetes, with 90% of them being unaware of their condition. Diabetic patients participation in diabetes education has grown (from 56.8% in 2008 to 58.5% in 2010), and the target participation rate of 62.5 percent may be reached by 2020. 

Hyperlipidemia and hypertension:

hypertension
hypertension (Source:Pixabay)

Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease and stroke by lowering HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and raising LDL(low-density lipoprotein) and triglycerides. The proportion of diabetic individuals with LDL control decreased 5.9% from 2005 to 2008 to 2009–2012. (from 53 percent to 49.9 percent ). Lipid profile management helps lower the risk of heart diseases by 20-50%. Around 74% of diabetic people are affected by hypertension. A blood pressure below 140/90 is linked to a high incidence of T2DM. 

The percentage of diabetes patients whose blood pressure was regulated increased 6.9% from 2005 to 2008 to 2009–2012. (from 51.8 percent to 55.4 percent ). A ten-millimetre-higher drop in blood pressure can cut the risk of diabetes complications by up to 12%.

Physical inactivity:

Physical inactivity:
Physical inactivity:

The American Diabetes Association recommends that diabetes patients go no more than 2 days (consecutive) without aerobic exercise to enhance glycemic control, maintain weight maintenance, and lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to the National Diabetes Prevention Program, high-risk adults who exercised for at least 150 minutes weekly had a 58 percent lower risk of developing diabetes. 

Non-diabetic people were more likely to exercise than diabetic people, and about half of them were out of the supervised exercise program. The more involved people in the exercise program were the elderly, females, and those participating with a spouse. Prediabetic individuals improved their physical activity by 22.6 percent (from 44.6 percent to 54.7 percent) between 2005 and 2012, more than the 2020 target. People who engaged in even moderate amounts of movement were 30 percent less likely to develop diabetes than those who did not.

Smoking:

Smoking
Smoking:

smokers are 30-40% more susceptible to developing type 2 diabetes than those who do not smoke. Smoking can make the management of insulin more difficult, as the high nicotine levels reduce the effectiveness of insulin. According to the National Diabetes Statistics Report, among the participants, 19.8% were tobacco users, 13.8% reported cigarette smoking, and 37.1% reported quitting smoking, but had a history of smoking atleast 100 cigarettes in their life. 

Overweight and obesity:

Overweight
Overweight

Obesity is the reason for developing diabetes and can also worsen the symptoms. As per the studies, among the participants, 89.8% were either overweight or obese defined by their body mass index of 25kg/m2. Of these, 27.7% were overweight with a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2, 45.8% had obesity with a BMI of 30.0-39.9kg/m2, and 16.2% had extreme obesity with a BMI of 40.0kg/m2 or higher. 

A1C test:

A1C test
A1C test

This is the haemoglobin test that measures the blood sugar levels over the past 3 months. It is a common test to diagnose prediabetes or diabetes. According to the study, among all the participants 49.4% had an A1c value of 7.05 or higher. Of these 24.9% had an A1C value of 7.0-7.9%, 11.4% had an A1C value of 8.0-9.0%, and 13.2% had an A1C higher than 9.0%. 

Conclusion 

These are the modifiable risk factors for diabetes complications. If the person focuses on improving these factors, they can manage their diabetes. Hence, quitting smoking, managing a healthy weight and improving a diet that is free from bad cholesterol is vital for all diabetics. Stress is also one of the big factors that can cause diabetes and cardiovascular disease if doesn’t manage. 

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