The Different Types Of Cancer: What Are They?
Be Cancer Free! Know The Types and Symptoms
Different types of cancer are present worldwide. But first, let us understand what cancer is and what its types are. Cancer is a disease where cells divide uncontrollably causing them to spread throughout the body. Cancerous tumors may develop at any location in the body. Tumors may affect different organs and systems including blood vessels, lymph nodes, skin, brain, eyes, lungs, liver, bones, mouth, stomach, intestines, pancreas, heart, kidneys, prostate, bladder, breast, cervix, uterus, ovaries, testicles, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, spleen, and peripheral nervous system. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States and now in most countries.
There are two types of cancer: primary (or de novo) and metastatic. Primary cancer occurs when abnormal cells first begin to grow out of control. Metastatic cancer develops when cancer cells spread from their original location to other parts of the body.
- Primary cancer begins in one area of the body and spreads to other parts of the same organ or to other organs. Examples of primary cancers include breast, colon, prostate, and lung cancer.
- Metastatic cancer starts in one place and travels to other places in the body. Examples of metastatic cancers include melanoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and sarcoma.
Cancer can occur anywhere in the body and is generally classified according to where in the body it occurs.
- Oral Cavity – Mouth, lips, tongue, gums
- Throat– throat, larynx
- Esophagus – The stomach lining
- Lung – Lung lobes, bronchi, trachea
- Digestive Tract – Colon, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, small intestine, appendix, rectum, anus
- Urinary Tract – Kidneys, urethra, bladder
- Female Reproductive Organs – Fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, vagina
- Male Reproductive Organs – Testicles, prostate, seminal vesicles, penis
- Skin – Dermal layer, epidermis, hair follicles
- Breast – Mammary glands, breasts
- Genitalia – Penis, testicles
- Central Nervous System – Brain and spinal cord
- Head & Neck – Face, scalp, nose, sinuses, ears, mouth, salivary glands
Different types of cancer: what is possible the cause?
The five major causes of cancer are smoking tobacco products, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of exercise, and exposure to environmental carcinogens. Other factors that increase the risk of developing cancer include genetics, age, gender, race, family history, and immune system status.
Different types of cancer: what are the symptoms?
- Weight loss: Cancer patients often lose weight due to the side effects of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, hair loss, mouth sores, skin rashes, and difficulty sleeping. These symptoms can lead to weight loss.
- Persistent infection: Persistent infections are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and other microorganisms. Cancer cells can become infected with these organisms, causing persistent infections. Infections can occur throughout the body, including the lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, bones, brain, heart, blood vessels, and eyes.
- Fever: Fever is a symptom of many illnesses, including cancer. A fever may indicate a bacterial infection, viral infection, fungal infection, parasitic infection, or autoimmune disease. In some cases, a fever may be a sign of cancer.
- Pain: Pain is a symptom of many conditions, including cancer. Pain can be felt anywhere in the body, including the head, neck, back, chest, abdomen, arms, legs, hands, feet, and joints. Pain can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-lasting). Acute pain is usually sharp and sudden. Chronic pain lasts longer than three months.
- Swelling: Swelling occurs when fluid collects around a damaged area. Swelling may be caused by inflammation, trauma, injury, infection, or cancer. Swelling may affect any part of the body, including the face, throat, tongue, lips, gums, nose, ears, fingers, toes, eyelids, genitals, rectum, bladder, and breasts.
- Nausea and Vomiting: Nausea and vomiting are two of the most common symptoms of cancer. It is the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth that is known as vomiting. An unpleasant feeling in the stomach is nausea.
- Diarrhea: Diarrhea is a frequent problem among people who have cancer. It is characterized by frequent loose stools. Diarrhea may be caused by a virus, bacteria, parasite, or fungus.
Different types of cancer: what are they?
- Lung Cancer: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In the United States alone, lung cancer kills over 160,000 people each year. Most cases of lung cancer occur after age 50, and men are affected more often than women. Smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer. Other risk factors include exposure to secondhand smoke, air pollution, radon gas, asbestos, and certain viruses.
- Breast Cancer: Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed type of cancer among American women. There is a 1 in 8 chance of developing breast cancer in a woman’s lifetime. There are two major types of breast cancer: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). IDCs tend to spread faster than ILCs, and they account for about 75% of breast cancers. Risk factors include family history, early menstruation, late menopause, obesity, radiation exposure, alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, and diet.
- Prostate Cancer: Prostate cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Over 230,000 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in 2014. In men, it is the second leading cause of cancer death. Symptoms may include difficulty urinating, pain while ejaculating, blood in urine, weight loss, fatigue, bone pain, back pain, and fever. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation, cryotherapy, and targeted therapies.
- Skin Cancer: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the world. According to the World Health Organization, skin cancer causes approximately 5 million new cases per year. Melanomas make up 90 percent of skin cancer cases, and basal cell carcinomas make up 10 percent. Basal cell carcinomas are slow-growing tumors that begin in the lower layers of the epidermis and slowly move upward. Squamous cell carcinomas start in the top layer of the epidermis, then move downward. Both melanomas and squamous cell carcinomas have a high rate of recurrence if not treated properly.
- Colorectal Cancer: The fourth most common cancer in both men and women is colorectal cancer. It is the second most common cause of cancer death in the U.S., and it accounts for 9 percent of all cancer diagnoses. Symptoms include changes in bowel habits, constipation or diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bleeding from the rectum or anus. Diagnosis includes colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, barium enema, CT scan, MRI, PET scan, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options include surgery and chemotherapy.
- Leukemia: Leukemia is a group of cancers that affect white blood cells. These cancers are classified according to the type of white blood cell involved, including lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and others. Acute leukemias are characterized by fast-growing tumor cells, whereas chronic leukemias are slower-growing and are less likely to respond well to treatment. Symptoms include bruising easily, frequent infections, fatigue, and pale skin. Diagnosis involves blood tests, bone marrow aspiration, and biopsies.
- Head & Neck Cancers: Head and neck cancers are cancers that originate in the head and neck area. They include cancers of the lip, tongue, mouth, throat, nasal cavity, sinuses, ears, eyes, brain, and salivary glands. Head and neck cancers are responsible for nearly 6,000 deaths annually. Common symptoms include soreness, swelling, hoarseness, coughing, trouble swallowing, and headaches. Diagnosis includes imaging scans, biopsies, and pathology reports. Treatment options include surgery followed by radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy.
What are the treatment options for the different types of cancer?
There are many treatments for cancer, depending on what type of cancer one has. Treatments range from surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplant, and others. Each treatment works differently, but some work well together.
Treatment plans kill off tumor cells while leaving normal cells alone. Surgery removes the tumor(s) if possible, and chemo-therapy destroys the cancer cells. Radiation kills the cancer cells directly. Hormone therapy suppresses hormones that promote cancer growth. Immunotherapy uses antibodies to attack cancer cells. Targeted therapy targets specific molecules on the cancer cells. Stem cell transplants use stem cells to fight cancer.
The bottom line,
Genetic changes in your cells cause cancer, which is a group of serious diseases. It is possible for abnormal cancer cells to divide rapidly and form tumors. There are several factors that can increase your risk of developing cancer, including smoking, drinking alcohol, not exercising, eating an unhealthy diet, and catching certain viruses and bacteria. A cancer screening may detect the disease at an early stage when it is easier to treat. Depending on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient’s age and general health, the treatment plan and outlook for people with cancer can vary.