Cholecystectomy: Do you have any symptoms?
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Cholecystectomy means removal of the gallbladder. Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where only small incisions (less than 1cm) are made in the abdomen to perform surgery. About 1 million Americans have laparoscopies annually. Gallbladder surgery is often referred to as cholecystectomy. In contrast, traditional open surgeries have larger incisions (usually 5-10cm) and require longer recovery times. The patient lies supine on the operating table while the surgeon inserts a camera device through one of the incisions. A thin tube called a trocar is then inserted through the second incision to allow instruments to be introduced into the abdominal cavity.
It is done to treat stones (calculi) inside the gallbladder. There are two types of cholecystectomies: open and laparoscopic. The most common reason for cholecystectomy is the removal of gallstones and the complications associated with them. The following conditions may require cholecystectomy: Gallstones in the gallbladder (cholelithiasis) Gallstones in the bile duct (choledocholithiasis).
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: what it is and how it is done?
Laparoscopy is a type of surgery where small incisions are made in the abdomen instead of making a big cut. It is a thin tube that is inserted into the abdominal cavity. An endoscope is a long flexible tube with a camera at the tip. Open cholecystectomy involves cutting the skin and muscle layers of the abdomen and opening the peritoneal cavity. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy involves making tiny incisions in the abdomen. Surgeons suture the incision site after removing the gallbladder.
How does it work?
During laparoscopy, a surgeon uses special instruments called trocars to make several small cuts in the abdominal wall. These allow the surgeon to insert long tubes called cannulas. Cannulas have lenses at their tip, which enable the surgeon to view organs inside the body. Once the cannula is inserted, the surgeon inserts a tiny telescope through the cannula. This telescope contains a lens that magnifies the images seen on the monitor. Using the telescope, the surgeon views the organ and makes any necessary repairs. After the repair is complete, the surgeon removes the cannula and seals the wound with sutures.
The patient may experience some discomfort after the operation, but he/she should return home the same day. Most patients recover well and have no complications. If the patient experiences pain or fever after the operation, he/she should contact his/her doctor immediately. The patient’s diet should be less for several days following the operation. Patients who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy do not need to take any medications for pain relief. The patient should drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.
Through these two incisions, the surgeon views the internal organs using a video screen attached to a monitor. The surgeon may remove stones, gallbladder polyps, cysts, or abscesses using special tools inserted through the same incisions.
Once the surgery gets over, the surgeon closes the incisions and removes the trocars. Afterward, the patient goes home after several days.
Is gallbladder removal necessary?
Choosing to go for the gallbladder removal surgery is cholecystectomy. Surgery like this isn’t something most doctors will rush into. Even though it’s a common surgery, there are still some serious risks and complications. As a general rule, you should be able to go home the same day after surgery. Without a gallbladder, you can lead a perfectly normal life. As long as your liver produces enough bile to digest your food, it will drip continuously into your digestive system rather than being in your gallbladder.
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Why do we need laparoscopy?
Gallstones are hard lumps of cholesterol and bile that develop in the gallbladder. When these stones become stuck in the ducts leading to the liver, they cause inflammation and pain. If left untreated, the gallbladder may rupture, causing severe infection and possibly death. Laparoscopy enables surgeons to remove the gallbladder safely without having to open the patient’s abdomen.
Who should not undergo laparoscopy?
Anyone who has had previous abdominal surgery, including appendectomies, hernia repairs, or hysterectomies. People who have bleeding disorders, heart problems, kidney problems, or diabetes should not have laparoscopy.
What are some risks of laparoscopy?
There are two types of complications that can occur after laparoscopy: minor and major. Minor complications include nausea, vomiting, fever, soreness around the incision site, and bloating. Major complications include injury to nearby organs, blood clots, infections, and bowel obstruction. Some Other risks are as below:
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Infection: Infections are a major risk of any surgical procedure. Laparoscopic surgery is no different. There are many ways that infections can occur during laparoscopic surgery. First, bacteria may enter the body through the incision site. Second, bacteria may enter the abdominal cavity through the trocar sites. Third, bacteria may enter the peritoneal space (the area between the organs) through the trocar sites or the incision site. Fourth, bacteria may enter the bloodstream and travel to distant parts of the body. Finally, bacteria may enter the bladder and cause urinary tract infection.
Bleeding: Bleeding is a common complication of laparoscopic surgery. Blood loss occurs if you damage your blood vessels during the operation. If bleeding does not stop after several minutes, the surgeon must perform additional procedures to control the bleeding. In addition, if the patient develops excessive bleeding, he or she may require transfusion of blood products.
Damage to internal organs: Damage to internal organs is a serious complication of laparoscopic procedures. Internal organ damage may result from poor visualization of the operative field due to fogging of the lens. Poor visualization of the operative field may lead to injury of the bowel, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys, uterus, ovaries, or other internal organs. Injury to these organs may require further surgery to repair the damage.
Scarring: Scar formation is a common complication of any type of surgery. Scars develop at the skin incision site and around the umbilicus. These scars may become visible through clothing and affect the appearance of the abdomen.
Adhesions: Adhesions are bands of scar tissue that connect adjacent structures together. They may form anywhere in the body where two surfaces seperates. Adhesions often form following surgery and may cause pain or discomfort.
Urinary Tract Infection: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a condition which happens by bacteria entering the urinary system. UTIs most commonly happen by E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Candida albicans. Symptoms of a UTI include frequent urination, burning sensation while urinating, cloudy urine, fever, chills, backache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Death: Death is a rare complication of laparoscopic surgeries. However, death may occur if the patient’s heart stops beating during the procedure.
How is laparoscopy different than traditional surgery?
Traditional surgery involves making larger incisions in the skin and muscle layers of the abdomen. Laparoscopy requires only small incisions in the skin. Surgeons use specialized tools to perform the operation.
In the end,
You will heal at different speeds depending on what type of surgery you had. The hospital will require you to stay for a few days after gallbladder surgery if you have your gallbladder removed during open surgery. You may need between 6 to 8 weeks for your body to completely heal.